Here you can find references about normal value studies and our ECG analysis program MEANS

References normal ECG values

  1. Hiss RG, Lamb LE, Allen MF. Electrocardiographic findings in 67,375 asymptomatic subjects. X. Normal values. Am J Cardiol. 1960;6:200-31.
  2. Simonson E. Differentiation between normal and abnormal electrocardiography. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby; 1961.
  3. Blackburn H, Vasquez C, Keys A. The aging electrocardiogram. Am J Cardiol. 1967;20:618-27.
  4. Chen CY, Chiang BN, Macfarlane PW. Normal limits of the electrocardiogram in a Chinese population. J Electrocardiol. 1989;22:1-15.
  5. Rautaharju PM, Zhou SH, Calhoun HP. Ethnic differences in ECG amplitudes in North American white, black, and Hispanic men and women. Effect of obesity and age. J Electrocardiol. 1994;27 Suppl:20-31.
  6. Gambill CL, Wilkins ML, Haisty WK, Jr., Anderson ST, Maynard C, Wagner NB, et al. T wave amplitudes in normal populations. Variation with ECG lead, sex, and age. J Electrocardiol. 1995;28:191-7.
  7. Rijnbeek PR, Witsenburg M, Schrama E, Hess J, Kors JA. New normal limits for the paediatric electrocardiogram. Eur Heart J. 2001;22:702-11.
  8. Wu J, Kors JA, Rijnbeek PR, van Herpen G, Lu Z, Xu C. Normal limits of the electrocardiogram in Chinese subjects. Int J Cardiol. 2003;87:37-51.
  9. Luo S, Michler K, Johnston P, Macfarlane PW. A comparison of commonly used QT correction formulae: the effect of heart rate on the QTc of normal ECGs. J Electrocardiol. 2004;37 Suppl:81-90.
  10. Dmitrienko AA, Sides GD, Winters KJ, Kovacs RJ, Rebhun DM, Bloom JC, et al. Electrocardiogram reference ranges derived from a standardized clinical trial population. Drug Inf J. 2005;39:395-405.
  11. Mason JW, Ramseth DJ, Chanter DO, Moon TE, Goodman DB, Mendzelevski B. Electrocardiographic reference ranges derived from 79,743 ambulatory subjects. J Electrocardiol. 2007;40:228-34.
  12. Scherptong RW, Henkens IR, Man SC, Le Cessie S, Vliegen HW, Draisma HH, et al. Normal limits of the spatial QRS-T angle and ventricular gradient in 12-lead electrocardiograms of young adults: dependence on sex and heart rate. J Electrocardiol. 2008;41:648-55.
  13. Stead LG, Vaidyanathan L, Schears RM, Gilmore RM, Vedula KC, Behera SR, et al. Electrocardiographic intervals in the healthy geriatric population--what are the "normals"? Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2008;17:87-91.
  14. Macfarlane PW, van Oosterom A, Pahlm O, Kligfield P, Janse M, Camm J. Comprehensive electrocardiology. New York: Springer; 2010.

References MEANS

  1. Willems JL, Arnaud P, van Bemmel JH, Bourdillon PJ, Degani R, Denis B, et al. A reference data base for multilead electrocardiographic computer measurement programs. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1987;10:1313-21.
  2. Zywietz C, Willems JL, Arnaud P, van Bemmel JH, Degani R, Macfarlane PW, et al. Stability of computer ECG amplitude measurements in the presence of noise. Comput Biomed Res. 1990;23:10-31.
  3. Van Bemmel JH, Kors JA, van Herpen G. Methodology of the modular ECG analysis system MEANS. Methods Inf Med. 1990;29:346-53.
  4. Willems JL, Abreu-Lima C, Arnaud P, et al. The diagnostic performance of computer programs for the interpretation of electrocardiograms. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1767-73
  5. Kors JA, Van Herpen G, Wu J, Zhang Z, Prineas RJ, Van Bemmel JH. Validation of a new computer program for Minnesota coding. J Electrocardiol 1996;29 Suppl:83-8.
  6. Rijnbeek PR, Witsenburg M, Szatmari A, Hess J, Kors JA. PEDMEANS: a computer program for the interpretation of pediatric electrocardiograms. J Electrocardiol 2001;34 Suppl:85-91.
  7. Kors JA, van Herpen G. Accurate automatic detection of electrode interchange in the electrocardiogram. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88:396-9.
  8. Kors JA, van Herpen G. Methodology of QT-interval measurement in the modular ECG analysis system (MEANS). Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2009;14 Suppl 1:S48-53.